Cyber security is a key issue today and rarely out of the headlines. While most public focus relates to the Internet, SCADA engineers and security experts know that cyber terrorism concerns go beyond the wired Internet to other media, such as the wireless radio-based systems used for utility communications.
This paper analyses data management through the entirety of a data path. Management of all elements of a data path creates a data custody chain that allows the path to be traced end-to-end. This is critical to validating regulatory compliance data and reports.
This paper reports the results of a limited survey of chlorate in 25 New Zealand water supply zones undertaken in 2017-18, and funded by the Ministry of Health, to help inform development of the Guidance Note. In most zones, samples were taken from each reticulation on two occasions, and also from hypochlorite dosing solutions.
Leakage from bulk pipelines has not received much attention in the research literature due to the difficulty of measuring it. However, recent developments in understanding the behaviour of leaks with changes in pressure have created opportunities for cost-effective field-based leakage characterisation.
Shallow groundwater under coastal cities may pose a hazard in many different ways. For example, groundwater can contribute to surface water flooding, it can undermine the integrity of pavement sub-grade, and it can drive liquefaction susceptibility in liquefiable soils.